Burhanpur district, a part of Indore division is a district of Madhya Pradesh state with its administrative headquarters located at Burhanpur town. The district got its name from its headquarters town, Burhanpur. Malik Nasir Khan, a Faruqi dynasty Sultan of Khandesh discovered the place, Burhanpur in 1388 and he named it after the famous Sufi saint of the medieval period, Burhan-ud-din. At that time the place was the capital of the Khandesh sultanate. Then the Miran Adil Khan II, another notable sultan of the same dynasty came to the power, who constructed several marvellous palaces in the place, Burhanpur. He ruled the place for a long period and during his reign Burhanpur was flourished in trade and textile production. In 1601, Mughal emperor Akbar annexed the Khandesh sultanate and Burhanpur became the capital of Khandesh Subah of the Mughal Empire. Jahangir, the son of Akbar during his power declared his second son, Parviz as the governor of the Mughal provinces of the Deccan in 1609 and when he came into power, he choose Burhanpur as the headquarters of his residence place. The wonderful historical monuments created by different Mughal Emperors during their periods depict the glorious history of this place. Then in 1681, the place of Burhanpur was attacked by the second Maratha emperor named Sambhaji and his general, Hambirrao Mohite. After that the place remained under the rule of Marathas for a definite period of time. Later the downfall of the Maratha Empire was started and finally in 1818 they handed over this region to British. The district came into existence on 15th August, 2003.
Geographically, the district lies at 21°31'N latitude, 76°23'E longitude and 247 m Altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 37.57% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 3,427 sq km. and in terms of geographical area it occupies the ranks of 46th in the state and 358th in India. It is bounded by Khandwa district on the North and Maharashtra state on the South, East and West. The climate of the district is pleasant and healthy. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 934.9 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 2 development blocks namely Burhanpur and Khaknar. Again, it comprised 3 tehsils likewise Nepanagar, Burhanpur and Khaknar. There are 1 Lok Sabha and 2 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 3 sub-districts, 3 towns and 263 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 7,57,847 out of which 3,88,504 are males and 3,69,343 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 951 females for every 1000 males. The district has a population density of 221 persons per sq km. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 19.37% out of which 18.95% were males and 19.81% were females. The population density in the district is 221 persons per sq. km. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 20,491 out of which 10,961 were males and 9,530 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 5,985 out of which 3,654 were males and 2,331 were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslim with 72.91% and 23.86% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Marathi and Hindi with 26.97% and 24.83%.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the district. Most of the lands in the district are use for agricultural purposes. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are cotton, banana, sugarcane, wheat, chilli, etc. In the Madhya Pradesh state, the district is famous as the largest banana producer. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the famers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. Textile industries of the Burhanpur district are well-known to the whole world. In the Madhya Pradesh state, it is the biggest centre of Power Loom industry. Besides, textile and power loom industries there are also some other industries of gold wire drawing, pipes, etc. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from these industries helps in its economy to a great extent. In the year 2019-20 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 12,30,049 lakhs at current price and Rs. 7,31,756 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2019-20 was Rs. 11,17,255 lakh at current price and Rs. 6,44,245 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2019-20 was Rs. 1,29,159 at current price and Rs. 74,477 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its recognised educational institutions are Adarsh Vidhya Peeth Higher Secondary School, Subhash Excellence School, Burhanpur Public School, Saraswati Shishu Mandir School, Brijmohan Mishra Institute of Medical & Technical Science, St. Theresa's High School, Seva Sadan Mahavidyalaya, Pdt. Shivnath Shastri Government Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Guru Gobind Singh Dental College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 64.36% including 71.8% are males and 56.58% are females.
Nand Kumar Singh Chauhan, an eminent Indian politician and a member of the 16th Lok Sabha from the Khandwa constituency of Madhya Pradesh state was born on 8th September, 1952 at Burhanpur town. He is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) political party.
The district has a great variety of centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Asirgarh Fort, constructed by Asa Ahir from the Ahir dynasty is situated at a distance of 20 km. from the Burhanpur town. The fort was bordered by a heighted and a strong outer wall. It is a perfect destination for those who are interested in the historical architecture. Shahi Qila, one of the beautiful forts of the district with an attractive terrace garden which was made by Farooqi Dynasty but it was ruled by Mughal Emperor Shahjahan for a long period of time. Jama Masjid, a pious place and a preferred place of interest of Burhanpur was completed during the reign of Emperor Akbar but its construction work was started in the era of Farooqi rule. People from far off places come to this Majid to offer their prayers. Dargah-e-Hakimi, a tomb complex comprises mosques, gardens, and international class accommodation facilities for visitors are located in the district. Saiyedi Abdul Qadir Hakimuddin, the holy dawoodi bohra saint was buried in the place. This monument is very popular among the pilgrims from across the world.