Araria, situtated in the Purnia division is one of the thirty eight districts of Bihar state with its administrative headquarters located at the Araria city. It came into existence in the year 1990, and is 315 km in distance from the State Capital of Patna. There is an interesting story associated with its name. When there was British Raj in India, Mr. Forbes had a bungalow named ‘Residential Area’. With the passage of time people shortened the name of the Bungalow and called it R. Area. Finally the place came to be known as Araria. During the ancient period Araria was mainly dominated by three significant clans of Indian history. The important tribe of Kiratas ruled the northern side whereas the eastern side was under the administration of Pundras and west region of the river Kosi, at that time flowing somewhere near to the present Araria was controlled by Angas. Moreover, in the first war of independence of 1857, the place of Araria had witnessed a few combats in a nearby area of Nathpur between the mutineers and the commissioner Yule’s forces. In 1864 it was a sub-division of the earlier Purnia district. In 1990 it became one of the administrative districts under the auspices of the Purnia Division.
Phanishwar Nath 'Renu', one of the most admired and influential writers of modern Hindi literature in the post-Premchand era was born on 4th March, 1921 at Aurahi Hingna in the district. He is the author of famous Maila Anchal, which is regarded as the most significant Hindi novel after Premchand's Godaan.
Geographically, it is located at 26°13'N latitude, 87°46'E longitude and 47 m Altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 5.33% forest area of total geographical area. It occupies a geographical area of 2,830 sq kms. and it is bounded by Nepal on the northern, Kishanganj on the east and Supaul on the south-west side. The vital river in the district is the Panaar. The climate of the district is extremely hot in the summer and fairly cold in the winters. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season.The actual rainfall in the district was 1737.3 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 2 sub-divisions namely Araria and Forbesganj. There are one Lok Sabha constituency and 6 Assembly seats in the district.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 28,11,569 out of which 14,63,333 are males and 13,48,236 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 921 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 30.25% including 29.72% were males and 30.83% were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslim with 56.68% and 42.95% of the total population. The population density in the district is 993 (persons per sq. kms.). According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Urdu, Maithili and Hindi with 28.71%, 20.57% and 44.90%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 94,958 out of which 48,078 were males and 46,874 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 7,968 out of which 5,181 were males and 2,787 were females.
The economy of the district is basically based on agriculture. Most of its population earns their livelihood from agriculture. Rice is the most chief cash crop grown over here. Maize and Jute are also grown in an abundance quantity. In 2006 the Government of India declared Araria as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2011-12 the Gross Domestic Product in the district was Rs. 4,00,345 lakh at current price and Rs. 2,33,208 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005. In the year 2011-12 the Net Domestic Product in the district was Rs. 3,63,965 lakh at current price and Rs. 2,09,264 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005.
As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 53.53% including 62.3% are males and 43.93% are females.
Parmanand Rishideo, an eminent Indian politician and a member of the Bihar Legislative Assembly from Raniganj constituency was born on 12th January, 1962 at He is a member of Bharatya Janata Party.
Every year numerous travellers come to this place to enjoy various sets of tourist places. Jama Masjid, a mosque in the district is the great centre of attraction for the visitors. Some other notable places in the district are six storied Kali Mandir, Lord Shiva Temple at the heart of Thakur bari, Araria-Madanpur Shiva Mandir, Maata aasawar mandir, Uma Talkies, Meera Talkies, etc.