Historically, Raicur can be recorded from third century BC., the period of Ashoka. It was the part of Satavahanas’s kingdom in the early Christian era. Chalukyas of Badami also ruled over it. In the eighth century, it became the part of Rashtrakutas. The meaning of Racha is Raja or King and oor means a place or town, thus meaning King’s place. Permmana Rachavoor or Rachanoor was changed into Rachoor or Rachooruseen from a Kakatiya fort-wall inscription, by 1294 AD. The name was converted into present Rayachooru during Krishnadevaraya period. In Urdu, It was spelt Raichuras. In 1363, it was overruled by Bahmani Sultanate. Aurangzeb captured it in 1686. From 1724 to 1948, the district was ruled by Nizam of Hyderabad as a part of Gulbarga Division except the period between 1853 and 1860. That time it was the part of British Empire.
The district has several notable persons from different fields. Hazrat Khwaja Syed Mohammad Badshah Qadri-ul-Chishti Yamani Raichuri Rahmatullah'alaih was a Sufi saint of the Chisti from 1903 to 1978. He is also known as Badshah Quadri or Badesha Qadri. He preached universal brotherhood and peace. Sriwass has worked for Telugu cinema. He is film director, and screenwriter. His famous movies are Loukyam and Dictator.
Geographically, the district has total 8,442 sq. km. and occupies the Ranks 8th in State and 87th in Inida. It lies at 16°21'N, 77°35'E and 407 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 0.52% forest area of total geographical area. It is surrounded by the Krishna River on the North, the Tungabhadra River on the South and Kurnool District of Andhra Pradesh on East. Bijapur and Gulbarga districts are situated on the North and Bagalkot and Koppal districts are on the West of the Krishna River. Bellary District is situated on the South-West and Mahabubnagar on the South-East of the Telangana River. The climate of the district remains pleasant almost throughout the year. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 330.2 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administrative wise, the district is divided into 5 sub-districts. Moreover, it has 9 towns and 815 villages. Kannada is its official language. The district of Raichur came into existence on the 1st November, 1956 in the state of Karnataka with an allotted district code of 559. Raichur is its district headquarters which is located at a distance of 412 km. from the State Capital.
Demographically, according to 2011 census, the district is comprising a total number of 3,59,337 households with a total population of 19,28,812 including 9,64,511 are males and 9,64,301 are females. The population growth rate during the period 2001 to 2011 was 15.51% out of which 14.57% are males and 16.47% are females. The density of population of the district is 228 persons per sq. km. The sex ratio is pegged at 1000 (females per 1000 males) while the child ratio stands at 950 (females per 1000 males). As per 2011 census the percentage of major religions practiced by the people of this region is Hindu at 84.72% and Muslim at 14.10%. According to 2011 census, the percentage of principal languages of the region is Kannada at 74.87%, Urdu at 11.57% and Telugu at 8.11%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 36,535 including 18,677 were males and 17,858 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 11,269 including 7,376 were males and 3,893 were females.
Economically, agriculture is the prime source of income of Raichur. It has a power station namely Raichur Thermal Power Station at Shaktinagar. The Raichur Thermal Power Station at Shaktinagar in this district provides a large portion of the electricity consumption in Karnataka. It is also rich with gold resources. Hatti Gold Mines is located here. The district has no problem of water for irrigation due to Tungabhadra Dam on the Tungabhadra River, and Narayanpura Dam on the Krishna River. Numerous rice mills are situated here because of availability of Super quality rice. It also has a good trading market in cotton industry. It is considered as most 250 backward districts of the country and receiving the Backward Regions Grant Fund (BRGF). The Gross District Domestic Product during the period 2016-17 was Rs. 20,23,050 lakh at current price and Rs. 15,27,598 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Net District Domestic Product during the period 2016-17 was Rs. 18,54,896 lakh at current price and Rs. 13,87,079 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income NDDP, at factor cost during the period 2016-17 was Rs. 90,530 at current price and Rs. 67,698 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
Education wise, according to 2011 census, the literacy rate in the district is 59.56% including 70.47% are males and 48.73% are females. The total literate population of the district is 9,79,769 including 5,77,213 are males and 4,02,556 are females. Navodaya Institute of Technology (NIT) is situated in Raichur, India. It is under the VTU Visvesvaraya Technological University, recognized by the Government of Karnataka and approved by the All India Council of Technical Education AICTE, New Delhi. It is founded in 2009 by S.R Reddy. It provides professional education in computer science, electronics and communication, information science, mechanical, electrical and civil. In 2001, Navodaya Medical College (NMC) in Raichur was established by S. R Reddy. It is the first private medical college. At this time, it is a full-fledged independent Medical college. S.L.N College of Engineering in Raichur, Karnataka was established in 1979 under the H.K.E Society. It is affiliated with Visvesvaraya Technological University. It offers 6 graduates programs-Mechanical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Computer Science and Engineering, Electronics and Communication Engineering, Information Science and Engineering and Textile Engineering. It also provides course of Master of Business Administration. University of Agricultural Sciences is established through the University of Agricultural Sciences Act, 2009. It organizes the study and research of agricultural sciences. The district also has a number of primary, higher and secondary schools. For instance, Xavier School, Manvi, is a co-educational and English medium high school. It is founded by the Jesuits in 2004.
The district has some famous political personalities. For instance, Abdul Samad Siddiqui is one of the famous Muslim leaders from the North Karnataka region. He was the former Member of Parliament from 1988 till 1994. He is an educationist and established many educational institutes for the poor such as New Education Society, Millat Education Society, etc.
During the year 2016, there were 14,250 domestic tourists who visited the historical and the religious places of the district. The famous tourist places of the region are Raichur Fort, Mahalaxmi Temple, Maski, Mudgal, Hatti Gold Mines, Naradagadde, Jaladurga Village, Piklihal and Kallur Archaeological Site.