Karbi Anglong district is a district of the Assam state with its administrative headquarters located at Diphu town. The name of the district is a blend of two words such as Karbi and Anglong. Karbi is a very famous tribe commonly found in most of the regions in the state of Assam. On the other hand, Anglong is a Karbi term which means Hills. Both the terms Karbi Anglong together means the Hills of Karbi people. Prior to the British rule, the territory was under the reign of Dimasa Kingdom until the death of Sengya Tularam Hasnu in 1854 AD. After his death the British annexed the place and declared it as a ‘Scheduled District’ constituted in the year 1874. Later, Mikir Hills tract was included as "Partially Excluded areas" under the Govt. of India Act, 1935. After sometime two new districts namely, the United Mikir Hills and North Cachar Hills district were created on 17th November, 1951 by combining some significant parts of the districts of the present day’s Golaghat, Nagaon, Cachar and United Khasi and Jayantia Hills district of present-day’s Meghalaya. Finally, the name Mikir Hills district was changed as Karbi Anglong district on 14th October, 1976. But in 2016, the district was divided into two parts i.e. the Western Karbi Anglong district and Eastern Karbi Anglong district.
Rongbong Terang, a prominent literary figure was born on 13th January, 1937 at Lumbungdingpi near Bokoliaghat in the district. He has served as an Assamese teacher in the Diphu Govt. Boy High School. He was also selected as the president of Asam Sahitya Sabha for two terms. The Government of India honoured him with the prestigious Padmashree Award for his literary work, Rongmilir Hanhi in 1981.
Geographically, the district lies at 25077'N latitude, 93016'E longitude and 186 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 75.61% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 10,434 sq km. and it is bounded by Golaghat district in the east, Meghalaya and Morigaon district in the west, Nagaon and Golaghat district in the north and N.C. Hills district and Nagaland in the south. The principal rivers that flow through the district are Kopili, Nambor, Amreng, Deopani, Borpani, Jamuna, Kolioni, Patradisha, Dhansiri, Longnit, Dikharu and Doigrung. The climate of the district remains pleasant throughout the year. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 988.2 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 3 sub-divisions namely Diphu, Bokajan and Hamren. Moreover, it comprises 7 towns and 2,921 villages. The administrative languages in the district are Assamese and English.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 9,56,313 including 4,90,167 are males and 4,66,146 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 951 (females for every 1000 males) and child ratio of 959 (females per 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 17.58% out of which 16.08% were males and 19.2% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 80.10% of the total population. The population density in the district is 92 (persons per sq. km.). As per 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Karbi/Mikir, Bengali and Hindi with 45.72%, 11.06% and 10.60%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 24,612 including 12,798 were males and 11,814 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 2,640 including 1,479 were males and 1,161 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly dependent on both the agricultural and industrial sectors. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. Different types of agricultural crops are cultivated in the district among which paddy and rice are very common. The natives of the hilly regions are generally used to the jhum cultivation. The unique art and crafts of the Karbi Anglong is famous not only in Assam but also in the different parts of India. The district is scantily industrialised since it has only a few small scale industries of mining and manufacturing. One of CCI working factory (out of three) is in Bokajan. Its product is exported to the whole country. In 2006, the Indian government declared Karbi Anglong as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2009-2010 (E) the Gross Domestic Product in the district was Rs. 2,97,553 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 2,19,839 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005. In the year 2007-2008 the Net Domestic Product in the district was Rs. 1,99,545 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 1,50,566 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 1999-2000. In the year 2007-2008 the Per Capita Income (NDDP, at Factor Cost) was Rs. 22,443 at Current Price and Rs. 16,935 at Constant Prices in the year 1999-2000.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its most recognised educational institutions are Diphu Government College, Diphu Law College, Don Bosco Junior College, Eastern Karbi Anglong College, Junior College, Rukasen College,Thong Nokbe College, Industrial Training Institute, Aturkimi Academy, Calvery Home Academy, D.A.V. Higher Secondary School, Don Bosco Higher Secondary School, Don Bosco School, Howraghat English Medium School, Howraghat Higher Secondary School, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Kendriya Vidyalaya, etc. Most of the colleges in the district are affiliated to the Assam University. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 69.25% including 76.14% are males and 62% are females. The literate population in the district is 5,57,214 out of which 3,14,253 are males and 2,42,961 are females. The illiterate population in the district is 3,99,099 out of which 1,75,914 are males and 2,23,185 are females.
Biren Sing Engti, an eminent Indian politician and a member of the 14th Lok Sabha was born on 2nd March, 1945 in the district. He is a member of the Indian National Congress (INC) political party.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. One of the hilly districts of Assam called Karbi Anglong has several mesmerising natural sceneries. Diphu, a small but very charming busy town is located on a hill of the district. Silbheta, a perfect destination for picnic lovers is situated at a distance of 37 kms from Diphu. The place enclosed by some rain forests and a naturally formed stone bridge is also present over there. Akashiganga, a divine stream of water flows down from the high hill is located at a distance of 65 kms from Diphu. Furthermore, it has an ancient great shiva temple there. Garampani Wildlife Sanctuary in the district is renowned as the home of hollock gibbon and golden langur. It has also a hot water spring and it is believe that the water of the spring has some power to cure the skin diseases. Dikrut Waterfall, a marvellous waterfall is located into the bosom of mountain in the district. Kanthilangso Waterfall, another wonderful waterfall is situated almost 12 km. away from Denarong (Dengaon).